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Jargon Buster

2G
2″ generation mobile technology. Digital mobile phones – calls and texts.

3G
3- generation mobile technology. High speed always on data access.

4G
4™ generation mobile technology. Even faster internet access (5-7 times faster than 3G) also known as LTE (long term evolution).

5G
5″ generation mobile technology. This is yet to be defined but many countries and organisations are Scheduled to begin testing in 2017.

ABS
02 business mobile commercial model on a ‘Pay As you Use’ basis (i.e. per call / text) discounted at a wholesale rate.

ACD
Automatic Call Distributor. Spreads the inbound call load within a call centre to minimise hold times and efficiently distribute workloads. Also known as Uniform Call Distributor.

ADSL
Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line. Allows a standard telephone line to be used like a broadband line for transmission of large amounts of data.

AFH
Adaptive Frequency Hopping. Minimises interference from other wireless devices on Bluetooth’ connections.

Analogue Single line
traditionally used to supply broadband and Line phone services to residential premises.

Annex M DSL technology –
Annex M doubles the frequency bandwidth associated with upstream traffic, utilising some downstream capacity for enhanced upstream.

API
Application Programme interface. Set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when building software for a specific operating system. The API allows programmers to use predefined functions to interact with the operating system. Eg an API allows orders to be submitted direct into a supplier’s ordering platform.

APN
Access Point Name. The settings required on a mobile phone to access the internet or send MMS messages.

APT
Advanced Packaging Tool. Utility to assist installation of software on the Linux operating system. APT Analogue Proprietary Telephone. Analogue telephone
designed for use with a particular system/manufacturer.

ARPU
Annual Revenue per Unit. Used by service providers – average revenue generated per user, it is used to estimate return on investment on end user services and solutions.

BABT
British Approvals Board of Telecommunication. Certifies products and services as complying with Standards and regulatory requirements. BICSI A professional association providing information, courses, assessments and qualifications to information transport professionals.

BNC
British Naval Connector, used to connect many types of co-axial data communication equipment. BRi integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) offer two service levels. The lower capacity Basic Rate interface is designed for home or small business use.

CATV
Community Access Television. Sees local TV content created by communities and broadcast over cable or satellite networks.

CCU
Communication Control Unit. Device controlling data transmission on a network and hosting functions such as message switching and multiplexing.

Call Data Record
Daily and monthly call data files providing call information with associated charges.

Calling Line identification or Caller ID.
Allows inbound call number to be identified before answering (systems).

Common Language interface, an open standard which enables any application written in one of several core programming languages to run on any operating system (system add-ons).

Calling Line identity Presentation.
Allows the called parry to receive and display the calling party’s number.

Calling Line identity Restriction.
Blocks calling party number from being presented to the called parry.

Refers to a network of remote servers hosted on the internet rather than locally. Used to process, store and manage data.

Where an organisation houses it’s servers at a third parry data centre.

Connected Line identity Presentation.
Allows the calling party to receive the telephone number that their outgoing call has been connected to.

Connected Line identity Restriction.
The called number identity (where the call has been connected) is restricted to all incoming calls.

Class of Service, classification system for telephone system users, to restrict and assign privileges such as international or premium rate call access.

Central Pre-Amplifier.
Device which increases a system’s power and quality of sound by preparing the signal before it is processed by the main amplifier.

Carrier Pre Select.
Allows end-users to select, in advance, alternative Communications Providers to carry their calls without having to dial a prefix or install any special equipment at their premises.

Cell Station.
Base station for wireless telephones.

Certified Systems Professional.
Accreditation issued by institute for the Accreditation of Computer Professionals.

Computer Supported Telephone Applications.
European standard for computer telephony integration.

Computer Telephony integration.
Technologies enabling integration of computer and telephone systems to allow computer users to connect, answer and disconnect a telephone.

Direct Dialling in.
Available on ISDN lines. Offers capability for dialling individual telephone extensions, without going through a central switchboard.

Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology.
A global standard for digital wireless telephones (but not mobiles).

Dynamic Host Communications Protocol.
Allows network administrators to centrally configure IP addresses.

Dedicated Internet Access, access like broadband.

Direct inward Dialling.
Facility enabling callers to directly call an extension on a private branch exchange (PBX).

Direct in Lines.
Facility for directing calls made on a line to a specific extension or group.

Direct inward System Access.
Facility enabling access to a private branch exchange from an external line.

O, business mobile commercial model containing tariffs and Bolt-ons. Pricing at retail rate less a wholesale discount.

DMZ
Demilitarised zone, fl computer or network placed between a public and private network to act as buffer and prevent unauthorised access to private data.

DNS
Domain Name System. Allows you to type in a web address rather than an IP address e.g. www.bbc.co.uk instead of 212.58.253.67

DPT
Digital Proprietary Telephone. Digital telephone designed for use with a particular system/manufacturer.

DSP
Digital Signal Processing. Technology which can differentiate between background noise and voice to improve clarity of sound.

DSS
Direct Station Select. Facility allowing frequently used numbers to be stored and dialled with a single touch.

DTMF
Dual Tone Multi Frequency. The technology behind automated switchboards (Press 1 for Accounts) etc. It works by generating two tones of different frequencies which instruct the system to direct a call.

EAD
Ethernet Access Direct. Point to Point circuit – sites within 25Km.

EDGE
Enhanced Data for Global Evolution, (also known as Enhanced GPRS or EGPRS) is a data system used on top of GSM networks, it provides nearly three times faster speeds than the out-dated GPRS system. Both phone and network must support EDGE, otherwise the phone will revert automatically to GPRS.

EFM
Ethernet in the First Mile. First mile, meaning simply the connection between the premises and the local exchange – in reality up to 3.9km, offers a non-contended, symmetrical service delivered as either two or four bonded copper pairs creating a single synchronous Ethernet connection.

ElA
Electronics industry Association. Sets certain data transmission standards.

ELR
Earth Loop Recall. One of two call transfer systems which also enable the Recall facility for phones connected via a Private Branch Exchange (PBX).

EoFTTC
Ethernet over Fibre TO The Cabinet. Business grade entry level Ethernet (internet access).

EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A memory part which will not forget its program or data when power is removed.

Ethernet Co-axial
or twisted wire cable typically used to connect equipment on Local Area Networks (LANs) and offering speeds up to 10Mbps.

EVM
Entry Voice Mail. Telephone system’s integrated voice mail facility.

Fibre Optic
Method for the transmission of data using optic cable and light. Data is transmitted over high purity, hair thin fibres of glass.

Firewall
A protective security screen (hardware or software) used to protect network devices from harmful intrusion.

FSK
Frequency Shifting Key. internal modem feature that converts data from a computer so it can be transmitted via a telephone line. FSK also enables Message Waiting.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol, internet standard easing transfer of files between computers.

FTTC
Fibre TO The Cabinet. FTTC offers greater upload and download speeds due to the fibre optic cable connections between the local exchange and cabinet serving the customer premises. Typically up to 40Mb download and up to 2Mb or 10Mb upstream options are available.

Fibre To The Premises. FTTP takes the fibre optic cable directly to the building. Download speeds of up to 110Mbps are available.

Generic Access Profile.
A wireless protocol allowing different manufacturers’ GAP compatible wireless products to interact eg. a headset and base station.

Gigabyte.
1GB is equal to approximately 1 billion bytes or exactly 1024MB.

Generic Ethernet Access.
Business grade entry level Ethernet (internet access)

Allows high speed broadband to be delivered over line with a shorter distance from the exchange which Openreach plans to make available to 10 million premises by 2020.

Gigabyte.
Unit of measurement for data transfer equivalent to one billion binary digits or bits eg. a Gigabit Ethernet connection transmits one gigabit of data per second (Gbps).

Global Positioning System, uses between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals. This enables GPS receivers to determine their current location, time and velocity.

General Packet Radio Service.
A packet-switching technology that enables data transfers through cellular networks. It is used for mobile internet, MMS and other data communications.

High Definition.
Relating to resolution.

A handset lifter designed by headset manufacturer Plantronics allowing a handset to be lifted automatically or by pushing a button on a headset.

incoming Call Bar.
Prevents incoming calls receded on a line.

Abbreviation for intercom.
An internal communications system.

insulation Displacement Connector.
Removes the need to strip low current telecom and networking wires by piercing the insulator to create a connection.

international Electrotechnical Commission.
A global organisation which prepares and publishes international standards for electrical, electronic and related technologies.

international Mobile Equipment identity.
An IMEI is a unique serial number that every mobile phone has.

internet of Things.
Network of objects and devices communicating without human intervention (e.g. phones, machines, TVS, vehicles, buildings etc).

internet Protocol.
Standard governing transmission of data via the internet.

A unique address in number format which every computer device has. The IP address allows devices to communicate with each other over the internet. The IP address allows data to reach the right destination.

integrated Services Digital Networks.
Allow digital transmission of data via traditional copper wires. ISDN offers greater capacity and faster transmission than analogue.

Digital line. 1 line = 2 channels.

Digital circuit/bearer = 30 channels.

internet Service Provider. The provider of internet services to the end user who also issues the credentials to connect a service.

IVR
interactive Voice Response. Technology which detects voice and touch tone signals to initiate call direction eg. For Accounts, press 1.

JTC
Java Tools Community. A group committed to promoting standards for the interoperability and support tools for the Java programming language.

LAN
Local Area Network. A group of computers and devices such as printers connected to each other, typically by Ethernet cable or wireless link.

LCC
Least Cost call. Service provided by telecom carriers minimising call costs through selection of lowest cost routes.

LCD
Liquid Crystal Display, thin, low energy display device.

LO
Loop Disconnect (pulse dialling). Telephone signalling system which works by breaking the line to create pulses. Superseded by Multi-Frequency/Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (touch tone dialling).

LED
Liquid Emitting Diode. Low energy, high efficiency semi-conductor with applications for indicator lights and fibre optic data transmission.

LLU
Local Loop Unbundling, incumbent operators (BT and Kingston in the UK) makes its local network (the copper cables that run from customers premises to the telephone exchange) available to other companies. Operators are then able to upgrade individual lines using DSL technology to offer services such as always on high speed internet access.

LSOH
Low Smoke Zero Halogen. Network cable jacketing which releases little smoke and no halogen when subject to high temperatures.

M2M
Machine to Machine. The means of transferring data from one device to another using SIM cards – data is gathered, transferred and analysed – e.g. vehicle tracking

MAC
Migration Authorisation Code. Required when moving from one broadband service provider to another.

MB
Megabyte. A unit of digital information equal to 1,048,576 bytes or 1024 kilobytes.

MCU
Multipoint Conference Unit. Used in video conferencing to connect more than 2 locations together.

MF
Multi-Frequency signalling. Used to transmit address information for Caller id services and delivers tones when a keypad is pressed to indicate a call is progressing satisfactorily.

mkroSD
Micro Secure Digital. A flash memory data storage device used in a wide range of digital devices such as mobile phones, digital cameras, PDAs, musk players, etc. They are small, rugged and offer high re-record ability.

MMS
Multimedia Messaging Service. A store and forward messaging service that allows subscribers to exchange multimedia files as messages, such as text, picture, audio and video or all 4.

MOH
Music On Hold. Facility playing music to a caller whilst they wait to be connected through an exchange.

MPLS
Multi-Protocol Label Switching. Each data packet encapsulates and carries the labels from source to destination and offers a scalable way of managing IP-based traffic across a network. MPLS is designed to speed up network traffic and prioritise utilising Quality of Service.

MS
Abbreviation for Microsoft.

MTRJ
Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack. Standard fibre optic connector, similar to an RJ45. Available in pinned (for connection to MTRJ patch cords) and non-pinned arieties.

MW
Message waiting. A facility whkh provides a visual indicator of an outstanding vokemail.

NGN
Non Geographic Numbers. 03 / 0800 / 0808 / 0843 / 0844 / 0845 / 0870 / 0871 / 09 etc.

OCB
Outgoing Call Bar. Prevents outgoing calls being made on a line.

ODBC
Open Database Connectivity. An open standard whkh allows access to files created in different programs such as Excel, and Access.

OGM
Ogg Media File. An open source format designed for efficient streaming of multimedia content over a telecoms network.

P2P / PTP
Point to Point. A dedkated data circuit connecting two sites (not to be confused with peer to peer whkh is a method of communications between computers).

PABX
A Private Automated Branch Exchange allows a number of inbound lines to be accessed via one number and external and internal lines made available to those withfi the exchange.

PAC
Porting Authorisation Code. Code required from losing network provider to move to a new network provider.

PBX
Private Branch Exchange. An exchange serving a particular organisation, connecting internal phones and externally to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

PCB
Printed Circuit Board. A piece of hardware for mounting and connecting electrical components within electronk devices.

POE
Power Over Ethernet. Allows power to be carried via standard network data cables, reducing wiring needs.

POP
Point of Presence. The point at which a telecoms carrier establishes a physical presence in a geographical area where access services are terminated.

PRI
integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN offer two service levels. The higher capacity ‘Primary Rate interface’ is designed for medium size and larger organisations).

PS
Portable Station.

PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network. Comprises the world’s public telephone systems. Also referred to as the Plain old Telephone System (POTS) it provides the internet’s infrastructure.

PSU
Power Supply Unit or mains adaptor.

PUK(C)
Pin Unlock Key (Code). Code required to unlock a mobile handset.

PVC
Poly Vinyl Chloride, used as a cable jacket.

QOS
Quality of Servke. Facility for prioritising applications, data and users to provide a service level guarantee on a computer network.

Quadband
Refers to a mobile phone that supports the four major GSM frequency bands (850/900/1800/1900 MHz), making it compatible with all the major GSM networks in the world.

RAP
Remote Application Programme. Facilitates remote access to a network or devke.

RCDD
Registered Communications Distribution Designer. A BiCSi qualification awarded for knowledge in the design, implementation and integration of information transport systems and related infrastructure.

RCf
Remote Call Forward. A divert applied to a ceased line where the termination is no longer live but calls are forwarded to a nominated destination.

rDNS
Reverse DNS. Associates an IP address with a domain name – DNS wouldn’t work without this – so reverse DNS is what tells’ your web browser that 212.58.253.67 is www.bbc.co.uk

Ring Equivalence Number
Indicating the electrical load on a line e.g. REN l denotes loading of a single ringing circuit as found in a typical deskphone.

Requests For Comments
A memo to those involved in developing internet technologies. Each RFC has a unique number and may become an industry standard.

Ring indicator
Signals an incoming call via a visual or loud audible alarm. Particularly useful for the hard of hearing.

The standard Registered Jack connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling used for telephone and Ethernet wiring.

Refers to using a mobile phone
Outside of your service provider’s coverage area i.e. outside the UK. Typically, service providers charge higher fees for calls, messages and access to the internet.

Real-Time Transport Control Protocol
Is a standard for monitoring quality of multimedia data transmission to allow an application to improve service performance.

Software as a Service.
Software and associated data are centrally hosted in the cloud.

Subscriber Connect.
A push-pull type connector for fibre optic cables.

Session initiation Protocol.
Enables calls to be routed via the internet rather than a telephone network.

Station Message Detail Record (or Call Detail Record).
A log of call details – such as duration – made by a telephone exchange.

Short Message Service.
Protocol that enables brief text communication between mobile telephones.

Small Office Home Office.
Terms for a business employing between one and ten staff.

Straight Tip.
A plug and socket connector for fibre optic cables.

Shielded Twisted Pair.
Copper wire with a shield that acts as a ground. Twisted pair is the wire used to connect to a telephone network.

Telephone Answering Device.

Telephone Answering Machine.

Terabyte. 1TB is equal to 1024 Gb

Time Break Recall.
One of two call transfer systems which also enable the Recall facility for phones connected via a Private Branch Exchange (PBX). TBR has largely replaced Earth Loop Recall.

A product certification covering environmental and ergonomic standards for flat screen and cathode ray tube monitors, laptop and desktop computers, printers and keyboards.

Telecommunications industry Association.
Trade body for the information, communications and entertainment technology industries. Develops standards and lobbies.

A software protocol and application interface ensuring compatibility between imaging technologies such as scanners and digital cameras and enabling image scanning directly into an application.

Universal Serial Bus. A plug and play connector to link external devices, such as printers and softphones, to a computer.

Universal Mobile telecommunications System.
A third generation wireless network technology that allows speeds of up to 2Mbps.

Unshielded Twisted Pair.
Non-grounded copper wire used to connect to a telephone network-

Video as a Service.
Virtual video conferencing service for dispersed attendees

Video Conferencing.
A combination of voice, video and data collaboration in one solution.

A Virtual Local Area Network where PC location is not defined by physical location but, say, user type or application, allowing administrators to better manage loading and bandwidth.

Voice Over internet Protocol.
Standard governing voice transmission via the internet.

Voice Over Long Term Evolution.
Essentially voice over IP for mobiles using data packets to transmit phone calls instead of traditional packet switched methods.

Facility which automatically detects and transmits sound without a user needing to press a button.

Virtual Private LAN Service.
Pretty much same as MPLS only a slightly different way of achieving this.

Virtual Private Network.
Network offering increased security of data transmission between multiple sites over the internet.

Voice Processing System.
Application offering functions such as voice mail, auto-attendant, bulletin board messages and interview service where pauses are left between pre-recorded questions for a caller’s replies.

Wide Area Network
Non-localised computer network spanning geographic boundaries e.g. connecting multi-site offices.

Wireless Application Protocol.
Standard governing applications for wireless communication.

Brand owned by the WiFi Alliance dedicated to ensuring the interoperability and accreditation of wireless devices.

A method of using WiFi to make phone calls on a mobile where the mobile network signal is not available.

A Wireless Local Area Network.

Wholesale Line rental.
A product that BT is obliged to provide to other Communications Providers, it enables other Communications Providers to offer both line rental and calls to end-users.